Poultry-Layers

Brief Introduction:cheeky

Poultry Farming is one of the many rewarding businesses in Uganda. It Can be done anywhere from rural to urban areas. Many poultry farmer do small scale rearing at the backyard of their homes in a space not exceeding 20feet by putting decked structures.

There are basically 3 common poultry rearing systems in Uganda depending on one's income ,space availability etc.

  1. Cage System
  2. Deep litter system
  3. Free range

I. Cage system:  The cage system of rearing birds has been considered as a super intensive system providing floor area of 0.6-0.75 sq.feet per bird.  In cage the birds are kept in one, two or three per cage, arranged in single or double or triple rows.

Advantages
1. Greater number of birds is reared per unit of area
2. Facilitates correct maintenance of records
3. Helps in identifying poor producers and prompt culling
4. Control of vices of poultry cannibalism and egg eating
5. It helps in production of clean eggs
6. Removal of stress factors
7. Easy control of parasitic disease like coccidiosis and worm infestation
8. Prompt steps to control feed wastage.
9. The cage method of housing is ideal for the area of moderated climate conditions where the day temperature in summer does not high and temperature does not fall too low.
10. Egg production of caged layer was reported to be more then those kept in deep litter system.
11. Feed efficiency and egg weight were better in caged birds than the laying flock under deep litter system.

Disadvantages:
1. Difficulties in ensuring proper ventilation to birds especially in summer season and under very high densed conditions.
2. Incidence of leg problem, cage layer fatigue, fatty liver syndrome, flies and obnoxious gases in the house will be on increases
3. Hysteriosis of chicks

II. Deep litter system:  Deep litter system is commonly used in Uganda. Its abit cheap but takes time to set the up the structures.

Advantages:
1. It is an economical
2. Hygienic, comfortable and safe to birds
3. Built up litter supplies vitamin B12 and Riboflavin to the birds
4. Controls diseases and vices
5. It increases the efficiency of production
6. Materials such as paddy husks saw dust, dried leaf, chopped straw and groundnut kernels depending upon the availability can be used as litter materials.

Points to be considered while adopting deep litter system
1. The deep litter system should always kept dry.
2. Only right numbers of birds should be housed
3. The house should be well ventilated
4. The litter should be stirred at least once in a week-wet litter if any should be replaced immediately with new dry litter and birds must be   fed a balanced ratio.
5. The time starting deep litter system should be in the dry period of the year as it allows sufficient time (At least two months) for bacterial      action.
6. Placing of water should be given due attention to keep litter dry.

III. Free Range system. Its the most practiced mode of poultry farming in Uganda especially rural areas.

Free Range poultry sytem

Advantages:

  1. Its cheap
  2. Birds get a balanced diet
  3. Less stress
  4. More strength of body and muscles

Disadvantages:

  1. Less monitoring of birds as they loiter in the neighborhood
  2. Prone to disease contamination
  3. No security as they can be easily stolen
Venture: 
Poultry-Layers
Venture Category: 
Farming
Image: 
Venture Size: 

400 birds

Initial Capital Required: 

3 Million

Initial Labour Units: 

Atleast one person per 1000 birds

Initial Labour Cost: 

Minimum 150,000/= depending on your burgaining power

Initial Inputs: 
Laying Boxes,Feeders,Water drinking troughs,Poultry House,Brooder,Coffee husks, charcoal,Pots,Broiler starter Mash,Brooder paper, Vitamin Concetrates (Zygro Amilyte),Glucose(250mg in 10 litres water),Egg trays,Lighting,disinfectant, Spraying machine,syringes.Jerrycans, Basins, Feeds mixture composition formula if you intend to mix feeds for yourself(get a professional Vet consultant to give you a feeds mixture formula appropriate to your Birds)
Cost of Initial Inputs: 

1000000

Variable Costs: 

Water, feeds, vaccination

Fiexd Costs/Recurrent Expenditures: 

water
Feeds
Vaccination
Labour

Optimal Venture Setting: 

Preferably in a spacious place with adequate water supply since the 400 birds will consume atleast 6 (20litre) jerrycans per day (120litres) at laying stage

Available Market: 

Almost every where market for Eggs is available. One tray of Eggs costs on average UGX Shs 9,000/=

Product Market Price: 

A tray currently costs between 8500/= to 9500/= market price.

Brief Venture Description: 

Poultry Start-up Initial Costs based on 400 Birds:

Initial Start-up Costs Minus Setting up brooder house: Stock taken on 16th November 2018.

Table1:Initial Start-up Costs Minus Setting up brooder house

 

Item #

Item

Units

Cost+- @

SubTotal(UGXShs)

 

1

Chicks

400

5000

2,000,000

 

2

Brooder Paper

2

6000

12,000

 

3

Amino Acids+Vitamins(Amilyte)

1kg

100000

100,000

 

4

Glucose

10 packets

500

5,000

 

5

Feeds(Broilers Mash Starter)

70kgs

 

105,000

 

6

Egg Trays

10 pieces

600

6,000

 

7

Coffee husks

3 bags

12000

36,000

 

8

Charcoal

2 Sacks

85000

170,000

 

9

Charcoal Pots

4

5000

20,000

 

10

Disinfectant (Noro Cleanse

1 bottle

16000

16,000

 

11

Spray Machine/gun

1

60000

60,000

 

12

Jerry cans

4

10000

40,000

 

13

Water Drum

1

80000

80,000

 

14

Water Drinkers

20

5000

100,000

 

15

Wooden Feeders

10

3500

35,000

 

 

 

 

TOTAL

2,785,000

 

Feeding costs excluding the first 1 month of broiler Starter feeding(Exclusively buy already mixed feeds from recognized , & trusted Feeds company- Say VET Feeds);

Table 2: Feeding costs for the first 5 months excluding the first one month of Broiler starter feeding.

Date

Cost of feeds

cost of Maize Bran

Sub_total(UGX Shs) Remark

3rd Dec 2018

110000

N/A

~110,000  Fully mixed Feeds-Starter

10th Jan 2019

281200

300000

~600,000  Started Mixing for own-self

22nd Jan

280000

300000

~600,000

2nd Feb

280000

300000

~600,000

13th Feb

280000

300000

~600,000

4th Mar

300000

300000

~600,000

28th Mar

300000

300000

~600,000

CALCULATING THE ESTIMATED FEEDS COST BASED ON TH ABOVE TABLE:

From the above Table 2:

  1. its assumed the total expenditure on feeds(Maize Bran + Nutrients) for the 20 days is ~=UGX 600,000/=
  2. So in 1 day the 400 birds consume 600,000/20 = UGX 30,000/=
  3. In one month (approx 30 days) = 30,000 * 30 = UGX 900,000/= ,1 birds consumes roughly UGX Shs 75 /=
  4. So 100 birds consume 75*100= UGX Shs 7500/=
  5. 100 birds at laying optimum lay 3 Trays of eggs daily.
  6. 400 birds at optimum lay 3*4 =12 trays daily
  7. 1 tray of Eggs currently costs between UGX 8500/= & 9500 depending on burgaining power.
  8. Assuming we sell at worst 8500, then 12 trays fetch 12*8500= UGX 102000/= per day. Which comes to 714,000/= per week , & UGX 2,856,000/= per month.
  9. Profit per month = Total sales per month - Feeds expenditure per month = 2856,000-900,000= UGX 1,956,000 excluding other expenses
Hint:enlightened Roughly one bird would consume between UGX Shs 65 - 100 per day

 

 

Note:

1. The above calculations are computed basing on the current (2018) financial rates.surprise

2. It recommended that one has to create a 2X2 Sq feet per layer bird deep litter poultry house.

  1. Make room for good aeration
  2. Ensure adequate security.
  3. Note the Direction /Orientation of the Sun.

Layer Vaccinations:

Table3: Vaccinations

Day

Disease/Vaccination

Method

 

Mareks + IBD Vaxxitek

Intramuscular spray

1

NCD + IB Live Vitabron

Spray

12-14

NCD + IB Live

Eye drop/drinking water

15-18

Gumboro Booster

Mouth Drop/drinking water

 

NCD killed or NCD _ IB Live

Intramuscular /Drinking

WK6-8

Fowl Typhoid

Intramuscular

 

Fowl Pox

Wing Tip

WK 8- 10

Fowl Cholera Optional

Subcutaneous injection

WK 12- 14

Fowl Typhoid

Intramuscular / Injection

 

NCD + IB Live

 

WK16 – 18

De worming

Drinking water

WK 35

De worming

 

Vaccine Costs :

  1. Gumboro vaccine currently costs 15,000/= for 1000 birds
  2. NCD/IB costs 16,000/=
  3. OTC costs 10,000/=

Feeds Constituents Based on 58 kgs of Maize Bran for Grower’s Mash

Table 4: Feeds Constituents Based on 58 kgs of Maize Bran for Grower’s Mash
Qty (Kgs)

Particular

58

Maize Bran

12

Maize Broken

8

Sun Flower

6

Cotton Seed cake

3

Soya Meal

5

Shells(Amasonko)/Lime

0.5(or 0.75)

Premix (General)

0.25

White salt

0.25

Brown Salt

100g

Toxin Binder

100g

Lysine

100g

Methonine

100g

Salinomycine

100g

Salcrub

Business Challenges: 

Theft, price fluctuations, constant supply of feeds, water, Price fluctuations of feeds ingredients. Poultry needs not be established in noisy areas as this affects the laying process of birds.

Entreprenuer Contact: 
Frank - 0702033733
Venture Consultant: 
Tekida Dev't Association.,Whatsapp Group Link : https://chat.whatsapp.com/HyMlxciWpDTAdcMEaMOq